Java is the 5th largest island in Indonesia and 13th in the world, covering an area of 138.793 km2. Java is an island with very fertile soil. This fertility supports a large population in Java, which reaches more than 140 million people.

Most of the Java land are volcanic. This makes the soil in Java very fertile and suitable as a place to grow crops.

This volcanic ash is released by volcanoes which are very numerous in Java, such as Mount Merapi, Kelud, Lawu, Semeru and Bromo.

Many areas in Java have been changed for human needs, as rice farming and settlement. This happen especially in the lowlands on the North Coast (Pantura) of Java and in volcanic valleys area, such as the Merapi and Kelud mountain valleys. While the mountainous region itself still has many forest areas.

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